Sustainable Development Goals | SDGs

In September 2015, more than 150 international leaders met at the United Nations to contribute to global development, further the wellbeing of mankind and protect the environment.

The U.N. approved the 2030 Agenda for sustainable development, whose essential elements are the 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) and the 169 subordinate goals, which target issues like poverty, inequality and socio-economic development. They also focus on aspects of fundamental importance for sustainable development, such a dealing with climate change and building peaceful societies by 2030.

The SDG have universal validity, which is to say that every country has to contribute to the attainment of the goals to the extent to which it is able.

Obtaining improvements toward the attainment of the goals in just fifteen years will not be easy to do. But previous experience, based on the stated global goals, has shown that it is a method that works. The development goals for the Millennium, adopted in 2000, have already improved the lives of millions of people. Global poverty continues to decrease as more and more people are able to access better sources of water; more children attend primary schools; and a series of targeted investments make significant inroads in fighting malaria, AIDS and tuberculosis, saving millions of lives.

Since 2015, global poverty reduction was already slowing down and the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic reversed three decades of steady progress with the number of people living in extreme poverty increasing for the first time in a generation. Recovery from the pandemic has been slow and uneven as the world is presently facing multiple geopolitical, socioeconomic, and climatic risks. Given current trends, 575 million people (nearly 7% of the world’s population) will still be living in extreme poverty in 2030 compared to 800 million in 2015 (or 10.8%). Eradicating extreme poverty will be particularly difficult in sub-Saharan Africa and conflict-affected areas. Despite the expansion of social protection during COVID-19, over 4 billion people globally remain entirely unprotected. A surge in action and investment to enhance job opportunities and extend social services to the most excluded is crucial to delivering on the central commitment to ending poverty.

  • Target 1.1: Since 2019, 70 million more people were pushed back into extreme poverty – currently defined as those who live on less than $2.15 per person per day at 2017 purchasing power parity. The rate increased from 8.5% in 2019 to 9.3% in 2020. By the end of 2022, nowcasting suggests 8.4% of the world population or as many as 670 million people could still be living in extreme poverty today and that the figure will drop to 575 million by 2030 – a fall of less than 30% since 2015.
  • Target 1.2: Given historical trends, only one-third of countries will have halved their national poverty rates by 2030 from 2015.
  • Target 1.3: By 2020, only 47% of the global population was effectively covered by at least one social protection cash benefit, slightly improved from 45% in 2015.  Only 26% of children under 15 received a social protection benefit; only one in three persons with severe disabilities worldwide receive a disability benefit; only 35% of workers are covered in case of work injury; and only 18.6% of unemployed workers worldwide are effectively covered.
  • Target 1.4: Shifting public resources towards essential services is one of the key policy interventions for reducing poverty and building a better social safety net. The 2021 data for 100 countries shows that the global average proportion of total government spending on essential services is approximately 53%, with an overall average of 62% for advanced economies and 44% for emerging market and developing economies.

Obiettivo 1: porre fine alla povertà in tutte le sue forme in tutto il mondo

1.1: Entro il 2030, sradicare la povertà estrema per tutte le popolazioni del mondo, attualmente misurata come persone che vivono con meno di $ 1,25 al giorno

1.2: Entro il 2030, ridurre almeno della metà la percentuale di uomini, donne e bambini di ogni età che vivono in povertà in tutte le sue dimensioni in base alle definizioni nazionali

1.3: implementare sistemi a livello nazionale adeguati di protezione sociale e misure per tutti ed entro il 2030 per raggiungere la sostanziale copertura del numero di persone povere e vulnerabili

1.4: Entro il 2030, garantire che tutti gli uomini e le donne, in particolare i poveri e i vulnerabili, abbiano uguali diritti alle risorse economiche, così come all’accesso ai servizi di base, alla proprietà e controllo sulla terra e ad altre forme di proprietà, all’eredità, alle risorse naturali, ad appropriate tecnologie e anuovi servizi finanziari, tra cui la microfinanza

1.5: Entro il 2030, rafforzare la resilienza dei poveri e di chi vive in situazioni di vulnerabilità e ridurre la loro esposizione e la vulnerabilità ad eventi estremi legati al clima e ad altri shock economici, sociali e ambientali e alle catastrofi

1.B: Garantire una notevole mobilitazione di risorse da una varietà di fonti, anche attraverso un rafforzamento della cooperazione allo sviluppo, al fine di fornire mezzi adeguati e prevedibili per i paesi in via di sviluppo, in particolare per i paesi meno sviluppati, ad attuare programmi e politiche per porre fine alla povertà in tutte le sue dimensioni.

1.B: creare quadri politici a livello nazionale, regionale e internazionale, a favore dei poveri e sensibile al genere, strategie di sviluppo, per sostenere gli investimenti nelle azioni di lotta alla povertà.

The number of people facing hunger and food insecurity has been on the rise since 2015, with the pandemic, conflict climate change and growing inequalities exacerbating the situation. In 2015, 589 million people were experiencing hunger, and by 2021, that number had risen to 768 million. Projections show that by 2030, approximately 670 million people will still be facing hunger – 8% of the world’s population, the same as in 2015. Despite global efforts, too many children continue suffering from malnutrition and the current annual rate of reduction in stunting must increase by 2.2 times to meet the global target. To achieve zero hunger by 2030, immediate and intensified efforts are required to transform food systems, ensure food security and invest in sustainable agricultural practices.

  • Target 2.1: The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated an already deteriorating food security situation, with about 150 million more people facing hunger in 2021 than in 2019. In addition, nearly 1 in 3 (2.3 billion people) were moderately or severely food insecure in 2021. This represents an increase of almost 350 million people since the beginning of the pandemic. The most worrisome increases were seen in sub-Saharan Africa. The ongoing crisis in Ukraine is yet another threat to food security.
  • Target 2.2: Globally in 2022, an estimated 22.3% of children under age 5 (148 million) were affected by stunting, down from 24.6% in 2015.  Overweight affected 37.0 million children under age 5 (or 5.6%) and wasting affected 45 million (or 6.8%) in 2022. The global prevalence of overweight children has stagnated, and if current trends continue, the 2030 target will be missed by 17.5 million children. Further, the prevalence of anaemia in women of reproductive age continues to be alarming, stagnant at around 30% since 2000. And low and lower-middle income economies bear the greatest burden of stunting, wasting, low birth weight and anaemia.
  • Target 2.5: Although 71% of local livestock breeds with a known status are at risk of extinction, progress has been made in ex-situ cryopreservation: Between 1995 and 2022, the number of local and transboundary breeds for which sufficient material is available increased from 57 to 287 (out of 7688 local breeds) and from 31 to 175 (out of 1115 transboundary breeds), respectively. At the end of 2021, an estimated 5.8 million accessions of plant genetic resources for food and agriculture were conserved under medium- or long-term conditions in 846 gene banks in 115 countries and 17 regional and international research centres, representing a 1.1% year-on-year increase in 2021.
  • Target 2.a: Investment in agriculture is falling. Government expenditure on agriculture relative to the agriculture sector’s contribution to GDP has declined from 0.50 in 2015 to 0.45 in 2021 in all regions except Northern America and Europe, which was driven mostly by the COVID-19 pandemic response.
  • Target 2.b: In December 2015, WTO Members adopted the Ministerial Decision on Export Competition, thus formally agreeing to eliminate all forms of agricultural export subsidies entitlements. Total notified annual export subsidy outlays fell from their peak of 218 million in 2015 to almost zero in 2021.
  • Target 2.c: In 2021, the share of countries facing moderately to abnormally high food prices was 21.5%, a significant decline from the record-high of 48% in 2020, when the easing of COVID-19 related restrictive measures prompted strong demand. However, this is still above the 2015-2019 average (15.2%), reflecting continued increases in food prices, mainly supported by elevated production and transport costs on account of costlier fertilizers and energy. In sub-Saharan Africa and among LDCs, the proportion of countries experiencing high food prices increased for the second consecutive year in 2021.

The pandemic and other ongoing crises are hindering progress in achieving SDG3, exacerbating existing health inequalities and threatening progress towards universal health coverage. As a result, 68 million children are known to be un- or under-vaccinated as of 2022 from TB and malaria increased. This has been particularly challenging in low- and middle-income countries, where health systems were already under-resourced before the pandemic. The pandemic has also highlighted the need for stronger global health security systems to prevent and respond to future pandemics. Overcoming these setbacks and dealing with longstanding shortcomings in health-care provision requires an urgent strengthening of health systems.

  • Target 3.1: The global maternal mortality ratio decreased only from 227 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in 2015 to 223 in 2020, still over three times higher than the target of 70 maternal deaths by 2030. This means that almost 800 women are still dying from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth every day. Almost 95% of these deaths occurred in low and lower-middle-income countries. The global average annual rate of reduction was only 0.04% in the period of 2016-2020, significantly lower than the 2.7% rate in 2000-2015. To meet the target, the annual rate of reduction needs to increase to 11% between 2020 and 2030. In 2022, 86% of global births were attended by skilled health personnel, which increased from 81% in 2015, but coverage in sub-Saharan Africa was only 70%.
  • Target 3.2: Between 2015 and 2021, the global under-5 mortality rate fell by 12% from 43 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2015 to 38 deaths and the global neonatal mortality rate fell from 20 to 18 deaths.  In 2021, 5 million children died before reaching their fifth birthday—down from 6.1 million in 2015.  Of 200 countries and areas analysed, only 54 countries are not on track to meet the target of lower than 25 deaths per 1,000 live births. Among these countries, 37 countries will need to more than double their current rate of progress or reverse a recent increasing trend to achieve the SDG target by 2030.
  • Target 3.3: Progress towards the SDG target of ending communicable diseases by 2030 remains off course eventhough progress varies across different diseases. a) Tremendous progress has, for instance, been made in reducing new HIV infections, particularly in the highest-burden regions: the estimated 1.5 million new HIV infections in 2021 was almost one-third fewer than in 2010. This is however still far from the 2025 target of fewer than 370,000 new HIV infections as agreed by the UN General Assembly in 2021. b) In 2021, an estimated 1.6 million people died from TB and 10.6 million people fell ill with TB, an increase from 10.1 million in 2020. The TB incidence rate rose by 3.6% between 2020 and 2021, reversing declines of about 2% per year for most of the previous two decades. Between 2015 and 2021, the net reductions in TB incidence and TB death were 10% and 5.9%, respectively, only one-fifth and one-tenth of the way to the 2025 milestone of WHO’s End TB Strategy. c) There were an estimated 247 million malaria cases globally in 2021, compared to 224 million in 2015. There were an estimated 619,000 malaria deaths globally in 2021 compared to 625,000 in 2020 and 568,000 in 2019. d) Despite significant disruptions caused by COVID-19, the global number of people requiring treatment and care for neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) declined from 1.8 billion in 2015 to 1.65 billion in 2021. Notably, in LDCs, 47% of the total population required NTD treatment and care in 2021, down from 79% in 2010.
  • Target 3.7: The proportion of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern contraceptive methods has been increasing slightly from 76.5% in 2015 to 77.6% in 2023 and is projected to reach 78.2% by 2030 – strong progress but still not sufficient to meet the target of ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health-care services by 2030. Sub-Saharan Africa has witnessed the largest increase from 51.6% to 57.4% for this period and is expected to increase to 62.1% by 2030.
  • Target 3.b: The percentage of children who received three doses of the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (DTP3) fell 5 percentage points between 2019 and 2021 to 81%, causing the largest sustained decline in childhood vaccinations in approximately 30 years. As a result, 25 million children missed out on one or more doses of DTP through routine immunization services in 2021 alone. This is 2 million more than those who missed out in 2020 and 6 million more than in 2019. The global coverage of the last dose of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, targeting 9-14 years old girls to prevent cervical cancer, was only 12% in 2021.
  • Target 3.c: A 2020 study shows that the projected global shortage of health workers by 2030 has reduced from 18 million to 10 million. Despite the tremendous increase in health workforce globally, regions with the highest burden of disease continue to have the lowest proportion of health workforce to deliver health services. According to data from 2014-2021, sub-Saharan Africa continues to have the lowest health worker density, with only 2.3 medical doctors and 12.6 nursing and midwifery personnel per 10,000 population. In contrast, Europe has the highest density of 39.4 doctors per 10,000 population, while North America has 152 nursing and midwifery personnel per 10,000 population.

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, the world was already off-track to achieve its education targets. If no additional measures are taken, only one in six countries will meet SDG4 and achieve universal access to quality education by 2030. An estimated 84 million children and young people will still be out of school and an estimated 300 million student will still not have the basic numeracy and literacy skills they need to succeed in life. To deliver SDG4, education systems must be re-imagined, and education financing must become a priority national investment.

Target 4.1: Between 2015 and 2021, the school completion rate increased from 85% to 87% in primary, from 74% to 77% in lower secondary and from 54% in 2015 to 58% in upper secondary education. Even before the onset of COVID19, these rates had slowed down relative to progress in 2010–15. Looking closely at reading levels at the end of primary school, for which trend data cover 34% of the world’s children, the analysis shows that global learning levels showed no progress between 2015-2019. Furthermore, learning losses due to COVID-related school closures have been documented in 4 out of 5 of the 104 countries that have carried out such studies.

Target 4.2: Participation rate in organized learning one year before the official primary entry age has stagnated at around 75% since 2015, still far from the target of ensuring that all girls and boys have access to quality pre-primary education by 2030.

Target 4.3: Among 131 countries with data from 2017 onwards, on average approximately one in six youth and adults aged 15-64 recently participated in formal or non-formal education and training. Participation is substantially higher among youth aged 15-24 (40%-50%), compared to those aged 25-55 (only 5% for most regions).

Target 4.a: Basic school infrastructure is far from universal. In 2020, approximately a quarter of primary schools globally do not have access to basic services such as electricity, drinking water and basic sanitation facilities. For other facilities such as computer facilities and the provision of disability adapted infrastructure, figures are substantially lower, with around 50% of primary schools with access.

Target 4.c: Globally, in 2020, over 14% of teachers are still not qualified according to national norms, with little improvement since 2015.

The world is not on track to achieve gender equality by 2030. At the global level, none of the 18 indicators “met or almost met” the targets and only one is “close to target”. At the current rate of progress, it is estimated that it will take up to 286 years to close gaps in leg al protection and remove discriminatory laws, 140 years for women to be represented equally in positions of power and leadership in the workplace, and 47 years to achieve equal representation in national parliaments. Cascading global crises have highlighted and exacerbated existing gender inequalities, such as unequal access to healthcare, education, and economic opportunities. Political leadership and a comprehensive set of policy reforms are needed to dismantle systemic barriers to the achievement of SDG4.

Target 5.1: Based on data collected in 2022 in 119 countries, 55% of the countries lacked laws that prohibit direct and indirect discrimination against women; half of the countries continued to lack quotas for women in the national parliament; 60% of the countries failed to have laws defining rape based on the principle of consent; 45% of countries did not mandate equal remuneration for work of equal value; over a third of countries failed to provide maternity leave in accordance with ILO standards; almost a quarter of countries did not grant women equal rights with men to enter into marriage and initiate divorce; and close to three-quarters of countries failed to stipulate 18 years as the minimum age of marriage for women and men, with no exceptions.

Target 5.3: One in five young women worldwide (19%) were married in childhood in 2022. Globally, the prevalence of child marriage has declined from 21% in 2016. However, the profound effects of COVID-19 are threatening this progress, with up to 10 million additional girls at risk of child marriage over the course of a decade from the onset of the pandemic.

Target 5.5: As of 1 January 2023, women held 26.5% of seats in lower and single chambers of national parliaments, up from 22.3% in 2015. At the local level, women held 35.4% of seats in deliberative bodies, up from 33.9% in 2020. At this pace, parity in such bodies cannot be achieved by 2030. Also, gender parity in political institutions continues to be rare: only six countries had 50% or more women in their lower/single chambers of national parliaments and 3 in local legislatures. Globally, women held only 28.2% of management positions in 2021 (up just 1% since 2015), although they accounted for almost 40% of total employment.

Target 5.6: Based on data from 68 countries for 2007-2022, only 56% of married or in-union women aged 15 to 49 make their own decisions regarding sexual and reproductive health and rights, ranging from an average of 37% in sub-Saharan Africa to over 80% in some countries in Europe and Latin America and the Caribbean. Among the 115 countries with data in 2022, countries have in place, on average, 76% of the laws and regulations needed to guarantee full and equal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights.

Target 5.a: Available data from 46 countries for 2009-2020 show that many women and men involved in agricultural production lack ownership and/or secure tenure rights over agricultural land. In one third of the countries, less than 50% of women and men have ownership or secure rights over agricultural land. The share of men having ownership is at least twice that of women in almost half of the countries. Of the 68 countries that reported on women’s rights to land ownership and/or control in legal frameworks, by 2022, about 31% protect women’s land rights considerably (a score of at least 5 out of 6), while 47% poorly protect women’s land rights (a score of 3 out of 6 or below).

Target 5.b: Globally, 73% of the population aged 10 and over owned a mobile phone in 2022, up from 67% in 2019. Women were about 12% less likely to own mobile phones than men— the gap virtually unchanged from 2019.

Target 5.c: Based on data reported by 105 countries and areas for 2018-2021, 26% of countries globally have comprehensive systems in place to track and make public allocations for gender equality, 59% have some features of a system in place, and 15% do not have minimum elements of these systems.

Billions of people still lack access to safe water, sanitation, and hygiene, despite improvement in the provision of these basic services. Water scarcity is a growing problem in many parts of the world, and conflicts and climate change are exacerbating the issue. In addition, water pollution is a significant challenge which affects both human health and the environment in many countries. Achieving universal coverage by 2030 will require a 6-fold increase in current global rates of progress on drinking water, a 5-fold increase for sanitation, and an 8-fold increase for hygiene. Boosting infrastructure investment, improving cross-sectoral coordination, and addressing climate change is key to getting SDG6 back on track.

Targets 6.1 and 6.2: Despite progress, 2.2 billion people still lacked safely managed drinking water services, 3.4 billion lacked safely managed sanitation services, and 1.9 billion lacked basic hygiene services in 2022. While the majority live in rural areas, the unserved population is decreasing in rural areas and stagnating or increasing in urban areas. Achieving universal coverage by 2030 will require an increase of 5 to 8 times the current rate.

Target 6.3: An estimated 58% of wastewater generated by households was safely treated in 2022, based on data from 140 countries and territories. Trends for domestic wastewater suggest that little, if any, progress is being made towards the target of halving the proportion of unsafe discharges by 2030.

Target 6.4: Water use efficiency rose from $17.4/m3 in 2015 to $18.9/m3 worldwide in 2020, which represents a 9% efficiency increase. Around 57% of countries presented a water use efficiency equivalent to $20/m3 or less in 2020, compared to 58% in 2015.

Target 6.4: At the global level, water stress remains at a safe level of 18.2% in 2020, but this figure masks vast regional variations and indicates a 1.2% increase from 2015 to 2020. In 2020, water stress levels ranged from high in Southern Asia and Central Asia to critical in Northern Africa. The situation in Western Asia and Northern Africa is particularly concerning since it registered an 18% increase in water stress levels from 2015 to 2020.

Target 6.5: One in two countries still lacks effective frameworks for sustainable water management. A lack of cross-sector coordination over water use, between agriculture, industry, energy production, and household supply, threatens the achievement of several SDGs, including those on food, energy, and life on land. While progress has been made globally since 2015—from 49/100 in 2017 to 54/100 in 2020—the rate of implementation needs to double to achieve the target.

Target 6.5: Data from 2017 and 2020 show that only 32 out of 153 countries that share transboundary rivers, lakes, and aquifers have 90% or more of those waters covered by operational arrangements.

Target 6.6: The extent of surface water bodies, including lakes, rivers, and reservoirs, is rapidly changing across the entire planet, with one in five river basins experiencing high (i.e. above natural) fluctuations in surface water during the last 5 years.

Target 6.a: ODA disbursements to the water sector decreased between 2015 and 2021 from $9.1 billion to $7.8 billion, a decrease of 15%. Total ODA commitments to the water sector have also reduced by 13% from $10.8 billion in 2015 to $9.4 billion in 2021. Commitments peaked at $13 billion in 2017 and have decreased every year since.

Target 6.b: Since 2016, the percentage of countries having procedures for local community participation defined in law or policy has remained high (over 70%) for both rural drinking water and for water resources management. However, the percentage of countries with high levels of participation remains consistently low (under 40%).

Access to electricity and clean cooking fuels has improved in many parts of the world, but 675 million people are yet to be connected to the grids and 2.3 billion are still cooking with unsafe and polluting fuels. The war in Ukraine and global economic uncertainty continue to cause significant volatility in energy prices, leading some countries to raise investments in renewables and others to increase reliance on coal, putting the green transition at risk. If the current pace continues, about 660 million people will still lack access to electricity and close to 2 billion people will continue to rely on polluting fuels and technologies for cooking by 2030. To ensure access to energy for all by 2030, we must accelerate electrification, increase investments in renewable energy sources and invest in improving electricity grids.

• Target 7.1: The global population with access to electricity has increased from 87% in 2015 to 91% in 2021. The pace of electrification has rebounded between 2019 and 2021. However, the annual access growth of 0.6 percentage points in the recent period is lower than the 0.8 percentage points in 2015–19. As a result, 675 million people, majorly located in LDCs and sub-Saharan Africa, still lacked access in 2021.
• Target 7.1: In 2021, 71% of the global population had access to clean cooking fuels and technologies, up from 64% in 2015. In seven (all located in sub-Saharan Africa) of the 20 countries with the largest deficits, fewer than 10% of the population had access to clean fuels and technologies. The growing access deficit in sub-Saharan Africa, if not reversed, could dampen or undermine increasing trends in global access.
• Target 7.2: The share of renewable sources in total final energy consumption amounted to 19.1% globally in 2020, or 2.4 percentage points higher than in 2015. Part of this progression is due to lower final energy demand in 2020, as the pandemic disrupted social and economic activities worldwide. The electricity sector shows the largest share of renewables in total final energy consumption (28.2% in 2020) and has driven most of the growth in renewable energy use, while the heat and transport sectors have seen limited progress over the past decade.
• Target 7.3: The rate of improvement in primary energy intensity, which had already slowed in recent years, dropped to 0.6% in 2020. This makes it the worst year for energy intensity improvement since the global financial crisis. Annual improvement through 2030 must now average 3.4% to meet the target of SDG 7.3. This slowdown was influenced by a shift in the economic structure during Covid towards more energy-intensive industrial production, combined with only modest rates of technical efficiency improvements, in the context of low energy prices.
• Target 7.a: International public financial flows in support of clean energy in developing countries have a decreasing trend that started before the COVID-19 pandemic and continued through 2021. In 2021, they amounted to $10.8 billion— an 11% drop from 2020. This was 35% less than the 2010–19 decade-long average, and less than half the 2017 peak of $26.4 billion.
• Target 7.b: In 2021, there was a record-breaking installation of 268 Watts per capita of renewable capacity in developing countries, representing a year-on-year growth rate of 9.8%. However, even with this positive and accelerating growth, developing countries are not on track to meet SDG7 by 2030. Moreover, the positive global and regional trends hide the fact that the countries that are most in need of support are being left behind, even among developing countries.

Progress towards achieving SDG8 has been challenging and the world is far from reaching most of the targets. The lingering effects of COVID-19, cost-of-living crises, trade tensions, uncertain monetary policy paths, rising debts in developing countries, and the war in Ukraine can each significantly set back global economic growth. Combined, these crises are placing the global economy under a serious threat. Global real GDP per capita is forecast to slow down in 2023, putting at risk not just employment and income but also advances in equitable pay for women and decent work for young people. Achieving SDG8 will require a wholesale reform of our morally bankrupt financial system in order to tackle rising debts, economic uncertainties and trade tensions, while promoting equitable pay and decent work for young people.

• Target 8.1: Following a sharp decline of 4.1% in 2020, global real GDP per capita increased by 5.0% in 2021. However, growth in global real GDP per capita is forecast to slow down to 2.1% in 2022 and further to 1.0% in 2023, before recovering somewhat to a growth rate of 1.8% in 2024. The growth in real GDP of LDCs slowed down from 5% in 2019 to just 0.2% in 2020 before recovering to 2.6% in 2021. It is expected that the growth in real GDP of LDCs would strengthen to 4.3% in 2022 and to 4.4% and 5.4% in 2023 and 2024, respectively.
• Target 8.2: After a sharp decline in 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic, labour productivity rebounded in 2021 by 2.4%. Productivity growth slowed in 2022, increasing by only 0.5%. However, even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, productivity growth had been slowing around the world. The latest estimates extend the downward growth trend, from an average annual rate of 1.8% between 2000-14 to 1.4% between 2015-22.
• Target 8.3: Globally, 58.0% of those employed were in informal employment in 2022, amounting to around 2 billion workers in precarious jobs, most lacking any form of social protection. Prior to the onset of the pandemic, the incidence of informal employment had been slowly declining and stood at 57.8% in 2019. The pandemic resulted in a disproportionate job loss for informal workers, particularly for women, in 2020. The subsequent recovery from COVID-19 has been driven by informal employment, which has caused a slight increase in the incidence of informality.
• Target 8.5: Equal treatment in employment, including fair and equitable earnings, is fundamental for achieving decent work for all. The median gender pay gap across 102 countries is approximately 14%. However, this calculation is only based on average hourly earnings, thus not controlling for characteristics such as the sector or occupation, educational level or amount of work experience.
• Target 8.5: The global unemployment rate declined significantly in 2022, falling to 5.8% from a peak of 6.9% in 2020 as economies began recovering from the shock of the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite an uncertain global economic outlook, unemployment is projected to increase only moderately, as a large part of the shock is being absorbed by falling real wages in an environment of accelerating inflation. Global unemployment is projected to edge up slightly in 2023, by around 3 million, to reach 208 million, corresponding to an unemployment rate of 5.8%.
 Target 8.6: Globally, nearly one in four (23.5%) young people were not in education, employment, or training (NEET) in 2022. Although this is a slight decrease since 2020, when the NEET rate was at an all-time high, it remains above the 2015 baseline of 22.2% and a long way from the 2030 target.
• Target 8.7: The latest estimates indicate that the number of children in child labour rose to 160 million worldwide at the beginning of 2020 – an increase of 8.4 million children in the last four years. This translates to almost 1 in 10 of all children in child labour worldwide.
• Target 8.9: The share of tourism in global GDP nearly halved in 2020 as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. The 2021 data shows a very modest 6% upturn, indicating that tourism’s economic contribution is on the path to recovery.
• Target 8.10: Accelerated adoption of digital solutions is transforming access to finance. Globally, in 2021, 76% of adults had an account at a bank or regulated institution such as a credit union, microfinance institution, or a mobile money service provider, an increase from 62% in 2014.

The manufacturing industry’s recovery from COVID-19 remains incomplete and uneven: some high-income regions achieved record-high manufacturing value added per capita in 2022 but levels in LDCs were not much higher than the 2015 baseline. In the aftermath of the pandemic, data show that higher-technology industries recovered faster and proved to be more resilient, pointing to the need to promote innovation and technology transfer in a way that benefits all countries. To achieve Goal 9 by 2030 it is essential to support LDCs, invest in advanced technologies, lower carbon emissions, and increase global mobile broadband access.

• Target 9.2: Global manufacturing value added (MVA) per capita increased from $1,646 (constant 2015 prices) in 2015 to $1,875 in 2022. While Europe and Northern America reached an all-time high of $5,052 in 2022, MVA per capita in LDCs reached only $159, far from the target of doubling their value of $126 in 2015. Although the share of manufacturing in LDCs increased from 12.1% in 2015 to 14.0% in 2022, this pace is not sufficient to achieve the target of doubling the share by 2030. While LDCs in Asia have made considerable progress and are on track, African LDCs will need to significantly accelerate progress for the goal to remain attainable by 2030.
• Target 9.2: After a plunge in 2020, global manufacturing employment returned to the pre-pandemic level in 2021. However, the share of manufacturing employment in total employment continued to decline, falling from 14.3% in 2015 to 13.6% in 2021 worldwide.
• Target 9.4: Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy combustion and industrial processes grew by 0.9% in 2022 to a new all-time high of 36.8 billion tonnes. Emissions shrank by more than 5% in 2020, but rebounded past pre – pandemic levels in 2021, growing more than 6% in tandem with economic stimulus and a surge in coal demand even as renewables capacity additions scaled record heights. CO2 growth in 2022 was well below GDP growth of 3.2%.
• Target 9.b: In 2022, the medium-high and high-technology industries experienced solid growth, mainly due to the recovery in the automotive sector and consistently strong production in sectors such as computers, electronics and optical products, and electrical equipment. However, the production of basic pharmaceuticals declined due to the COVID-19 situation and shortages of essential inputs. In 2020, sub-Saharan Africa and LDCs had low shares of medium-high and high-technology manufacturing, at 21.7% and 10.6% respectively, compared to 47.7% in Europe and Northern America and 47.1% in Eastern Asia.
• Target 9.c: Mobile broadband (3G or above) access is available to 95% of the world’s population, while 4G coverage has doubled to 88% between 2015 and 2022. However, growth is slowing down, and connecting the remaining 5% is proving difficult. In Sub-Saharan Africa, the gap is 18%, predominantly affecting the population of Central and Western Africa. The coverage gap is almost the same in LDCs and LLDCs

Before the pandemic, the incomes of the bottom 40% of the population grew faster than the national average in a majority of countries. The impacts of the pandemic and uneven recoveries in different regions of the world threaten to reverse that trend and further worsen global inequality. Record numbers are being forced to flee conflicts and economic hardship. By mid-2022, one in 251 people worldwide was a refugee, the highest proportion ever documented. Achieving SDG 10 requires concerted efforts to address the root causes of wage disparities and access to resources both within- and between-country inequality.

Target 10.1: Across 119 countries with data available prior to the pandemic, more than half of them have achieved income growth of the bottom 40% of the population at a rate higher than the national average. Sparse data from the pandemic suggest that two-thirds of 50 countries have experienced shared prosperity post-2019, driven by Northern America and Europe where in many countries, transfers mitigated the economic impacts of the pandemic on the bottom of distributions.

Target 10.2: For the 53 countries with information in 2015 and 2020, on average, the share of people living below half the median has declined by 1 percentage point, from 13.4% to 12.5%. This trend continued during COVID-19, in large part because of generous social assistance programs implemented in several countries. Yet the share living below half the median remains worryingly high in many countries: In 17 countries, more than 20% of the population lives below half the national median.

Target 10.4: The share of economic output earned by workers has experienced a sizeable decline in the last 15 years, from 54.1% in 2004 to 52.6% in 2019. This decline represents $590 (PPP) per worker on average. As earnings from work are particularly important for the less well-off and vulnerable, and as lower-income workers have been disproportionately impacted by the crisis, the observed decline is disconcerting.

Target 10.7: IOM’s Missing Migrants Project has recorded 54,127 deaths on migratory routes worldwide since 2015, of which 6,878 were recorded in 2022. However, the real number of lives lost is certainly higher.

  • The number of people displaced from their countries due to war, conflict, persecution, human rights violations, and public disorder has increased annually for over a decade. By   mid-2022 there were 32.5 million refugees worldwide, among 103 million forcibly displaced persons. By the same time, the ratio of refugees to every 100,000 people has risen to 398, an 87% increase from 2015, as forced displacement continues to rise.
  • Globally, in 2021, 63% of 138 countries with data reported having a wide range of policies to facilitate orderly, safe, regular and responsible migration and mobility of people, defined as having policy measures for 80% or more of the 30 sub-categories under the six domains of the indicator.

Target 10.c: The global average cost of sending $200 in remittances decreased from 9.3% in 2011, to 7.42% in 2016 and 6.3% in 2021, which remains more than twice the SDG 10.c target of 3%.

The pandemic has caused major shifts in migration patterns, including huge movements of people in and out of urban areas. Furthermore, climate change and conflicts tend to have disproportionate impacts on cities. These factors mean that the world is far from achieving the goal of sustainable cities.  In many developing countries, slum populations have been growing, putting at risk the target of adequate housing for all by 2030. Since 2015, the number of countries with national disaster risk reduction strategies has more than doubled. To achieve SDG 11, efforts must focus on strengthening capacities for planning for urban development, improving access to public transportation and enhancing waste management.

Target 11.1: As of 2022, nearly 1.1 billion people lived in slums or slum-like conditions in urban areas, with an additional 2 billion expected to live in slums or slum-like conditions over the next 30 years. The growing number of slum population is a manifestation of the housing crisis, a situation in many instances that has now been exacerbated by the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Target 11.2: According to 2022 data from 1507 cities in 126 countries, only 51.6% of the world’s urban population has convenient access to public transport, with considerable variations across regions.

Target 11.3: According to data compiled from 815 cities for the period 1990 – 2020, the physical expansion of cities globally was faster than the rates of population growth. For the 2000-2010 period, the average annual land consumption rate was 2.0%, while the population growth rate averaged 1.4%. These rates declined to 1.5% and 0.6% respectively for the period 2010-2020.

Target 11.6: In 2022, the global average municipal solid waste (MSW) collection rate in cities was at 82%, and the average MSW managed in controlled facilities in cities was 55%. The MSW collection rates in sub-Saharan Africa and Oceania are less than 60%. Uncollected waste is the source of plastic pollution, GHG emissions, and sources of incubation for infections.

Target 11.7: Data for 2020 from 1,072 cities in 120 countries indicate that more than three-quarters of these cities have less than 20% of their area dedicated to open public spaces and streets, about half of the proportion recommended. On average, open public spaces account for a meagre 3.2% of urban land, about 4 times less than the share of land in streets.

Target 11.a: According to a 2021 assessment on compliance of the 58 National Urban Policies, 55 (95%) fulfilled the first criterion on “responding to population dynamics”, 54 (93%) fulfilled the second criterion on “ensuring balanced territorial development” and only 26 (45%) met the third criterion on making considerations for “increased local fiscal space”, which calls for setting up more financing mechanisms for local implementation of sustainable urban development.

Target 11.b: By the end of 2022, 102 countries reported having local governments with disaster risk reduction strategies, an increase from 51 countries in 2015.

The world is seriously off track in its effort to halve per-capita food waste and losses by 2030.The COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impacts on consumption and production patterns, with disruptions to global supply chains and changes in consumer behaviour. Responsible consumption and production must be an integral part of the recovery from the pandemic. But the global economy also needs to speed up the decoupling of economic growth from resource use by maximizing the socio-economic benefits of resources while minimizing their negative impacts. Reporting on corporate sustainability has tripled since the beginning of the SDG period, but the private sector will need to significantly improve reporting on activities that contribute to the SDGs. To deliver SDG12, it is crucial to implement policies that support the shift to sustainable practices and decouple economic growth from resource use.

Target 12.1: Between 2019 and 2022, 484 policy instruments supporting the shift to sustainable consumption and production were reported by 62 countries and the European Union, with increasing linkages with global environmental commitments on climate, biodiversity, pollution and waste, as well as a particular attention to high-impact sectors. Yet, reporting has been decreasing by 30% on average every year since 2019 and continues to reflect great regional imbalances with more than 50% of policy instruments reported from Europe and Central Asia.

Target 12.2: In 2019, the total material footprint was 95.9 billion tonnes, close to the world’s domestic material consumption of 95.1 billion tonnes. In Northern America and Europe, the material footprint was about 14% higher than domestic material consumption, while in Latin America and the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa, the material footprint was lower than domestic material consumption by 17% and 32%, respectively.

Target 12.3: The percentage of food lost globally after harvest on farm, transport, storage, wholesale, and processing levels, usually attributed to structural inadequacies in the countries, is estimated at 13.2% in 2021, unchanged from 2016 and far from the target of halving post-harvest food losses by 2030.

Target 12.6: A preliminary analysis shows that around 70% of companies monitored publish sustainability reports in 2022, tripling since 2016. The sustainability indicators that are most widely disclosed by companies include policies on water and energy and CO2 emission, occupational health and safety, as well as board diversity. Companies continue to address their activities in attaining the SDGs, however, only 10% report on all 17 SDGs.

Target 12.7: In 2022, 67 national governments reported to UNEP on the implementation of Sustainable Public Procurement policies and action plans, up 50% from 2020.

Target 12.c: Global data showed a rise in fossil fuel subsidies in 2021, after a brief fall in 2020 which was largely caused by a drop in energy prices. In 2021, Governments spent an estimated $732 billion on subsidies to coal, oil, and gas, against $375 billion in 2020. This brings the subsidies back to pre-2015 levels. High oil and gas prices in 2022 will likely bring a new increase, as subsidies are often linked to the price of energy.

The world is on the brink of a climate catastrophe and current actions and plans to address the crisis are insufficient. Without transformative action starting now and within this decade to reduce greenhouse gas emissions deeply and rapidly in all sectors, the 1.5°C target will be at risk and with it the lives of more than 3 billion people. Failure to act leads to intensifying heatwaves, droughts, flooding, wildfires, sea-level rise, and famines. Emissions should already be decreasing now and will need to be cut almost by half by 2030 – a mere seven years from now. To combat climate change and its impacts by 2030, urgent and transformative action is needed to meet the commitments under the Paris Agreement across mitigation and adaptation efforts.

  • Target 13.1: The number of deaths and missing persons due to disasters per 100,000 population has steadily decreased from 1.64 during 2005-2015 to 0.86 during 2012-2021. The average disaster mortality stood at 47,337 in absolute terms in 2015-2021. However, the number of persons affected by disasters per 100,000 people rose from 1,198 during 2005-2015 to 2,113 during 2012-2021. The number of countries with national strategies for disaster risk reduction has increased from 55 in 2015 to 126 by the end of 2021. Based on this, a total of 118 countries have reported having some level of policy coherence with other global frameworks, such as the 2030 Agenda and the Paris Agreement.
  • Target 13.2: Global temperatures have already hit 1.1°C, rising due to increasing global greenhouse gas emissions, which reached record highs in 2021. Real-time data from 2022 show emissions continuing an upward trajectory. Instead of decreasing emissions as required by the target to limit warming, carbon dioxide levels increased from 2020 to 2021 at a rate higher than the average annual growth rate of the last decade and is already 149% higher than pre-industrial levels. Projected cumulative future CO2 emissions over the lifetime of existing and currently planned fossil fuel infrastructure exceed the total cumulative net CO2 emissions in pathways that limit warming to 1.5°C (>50%) with no or limited overshoot.
  • Target 13.3: An analysis of 100 national curriculum frameworks reveals that nearly half (47%) do not mention climate change. In 2021, despite 95% of teachers recognizing the importance of teaching about climate change severity, only one-third are capable of effectively explaining its effects in their region. Additionally, 70% of young people can only describe the broad principles of climate change in 2022.
  • Target 13.a: According to the OECD, total climate finance provided and mobilised by developed countries for developing countries amounted to $83.3 billion in 2020, a 4% increase from 2019, but still short of the $100 billion target. Climate finance remains primarily targeted to mitigation; however, and adaptation finance continues to lag, with international finance flows to developing countries 5-10 times below estimated needs.

Destructive trends in ocean health have not abated. The ocean, the world’s largest ecosystem, continues to be endangered by rising acidification, eutrophication, declining fish stocks and mounting plastic pollution. While there has been some progress in expanding marine protected areas and combatting illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing over the years, more concerted efforts and acceleration are urgently needed. Urgent and coordinated global action is needed to continue to advance towards SDG14.

  • Target 14.1: The global trend of elevated coastal eutrophication continued in 2022 above the 2000-2004 baseline conditions, though different in magnitude from recent years. The highest rates are in the Arabian Sea.
  • Target 14.3: Ocean acidification is increasing and will continue to do so if CO2 emissions do not stop rising, threatening marine ecosystems and the services they provide. Today, the ocean’s average pH is 8.1. This means that the ocean today is about 30% more acidic than in pre-industrial times.
  • Target 14.4: Fishery resources continue to be threatened by overfishing, pollution, poor management and other factors, including illegal fishing. More than a third (35.4%) of global stocks were overfished in 2019, an increase of 1.2% since 2017. Despite ongoing deterioration, the rate of decline has decelerated in recent years. However, the trend continues to deteriorate from the 2020 target to restore fish stocks to biologically sustainable levels.
  • Target 14.6: By the end of 2022, the Agreement on Port State Measures, targeting illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, reached 74 Parties, (including the European Union) or effectively 100 States. In the 2018-2022 period, there has been some progress at the global level in implementing instruments to combat IUU fishing. The new WTO Agreement on Fisheries Subsidies, adopted in June 2022, marks a major step forward towards ocean sustainability.
  • Target 14.b: Globally, the degree of application of frameworks that recognize and protect access rights for small-scale fisheries in 2022 was at the highest level based on available data, reaching a maximum score of 5 out of 5. However, this score conceals a reduced number of countries that contributed to the reporting.
  • Target 14.a: Even though the ocean covers more than 70% of the surface of our planet and contributes to 2.5% of the world gross value added, on average, between 2013 to 2021, only 1.1% of national research budgets were allocated for ocean science.

The world is facing a triple planetary crisis of climate change, pollution and biodiversity loss. The trend in forest loss, land degradation and the extinction of species is becoming worse, posing a severe threat to the health of the planet and people. Goal 15 will not be met without a dramatic shift in our relationship with our natural environment.

  • Target 15.2: The world’s forest area continues to decline, from 31.9% in 2000 to 31.2% in 2020, representing a net loss of 100 million hectares. Agricultural expansion is the direct driver for almost 90% of global deforestation. However, globally, there has been progress in sustainable forest management with both certified forest area and the proportion of forests under management plans and within protected areas increasing.
  • Targets 14.5, 15.1, and 15.4: Globally, coverage over recent years of marine, terrestrial, freshwater, and mountain KBAs has continued to increase to nearly half of each site covered in 2022, on average, but growth in coverage has slowed and coverage is uneven regionally, threatening progress towards the restoration and conservation of these ecosystems.
  • Target 15.3: Between 2015 and 2019, the world lost at least 100 million hectares of healthy and productive land every year, affecting food and water security globally. Human activities, intensified by climate change, are the main drivers of land degradation, directly affecting 1.3 billion people. If land degradation continues at a similar rate, this would result in an additional 1.5 billion hectares of degraded land by 2030. To reach the target of ensuring a land degradation neutral world by 2030, avoiding new land degradation and restoring at least one billion degraded hectares of land are needed.
  • Target 15.5: Species extinction is irreversible, and thus perhaps the most fundamental human impact on nature. Globally, the Red List Index– derived based on repeat assessments of every species across groups of mammals, birds, amphibians, corals, and cycads- deteriorated by about 4% from 2015 to 2023. However, over the last three decades since 1993, the Index has deteriorated 10%, with each decade deteriorating at a faster rate than the previous one. In 2022, comprehensive assessments of reptile species found that 21% of species are threatened with extinction. All indications are a deterioration in trend toward the target to halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species.
  • Target 15.6: At the end of 2022, 68 countries had at least one legislative, administrative or policy measure in place to ensure the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the use of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge in accordance with the Nagoya Protocol (an increase of 62 countries since 2016). Furthermore, 88 countries reported measures in place to implement the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (an increase of 76 countries since 2015).
  • Target 15.8: Nearly all countries have now adopted national legislation relevant to the prevention or control of invasive alien species, mainly embedded within laws regarding cross-cutting sectors such as Animal Health, Plant Health, Fisheries and Aquaculture; and 87% have aligned to global targets. The COVID-19 pandemic has brought an increased focus on the prevention, control, and management of biological invasions of pathogenic agents, particularly zoonotic pathogens, in order to mitigate their negative impacts on biodiversity and human health
  • Target 15.9: There has been a steady upward trend in the number of countries incorporating biodiversity values into national accounting and reporting systems. By December 2022, most countries (90%) had established national targets in relation to Aichi Biodiversity Target 2. However, only about a third of countries are reporting that they are on track to reach or exceed their national targets. In addition,92 countries indicated implementation of the System of Environmental-Economic Accounting (SEEA) in 2022 and the number of countries is expected to grow over the next few years due to the role of SEEA in the Global Biodiversity Framework.

Ongoing and new violent conflicts around the world are derailing a global path to peace and achievement of SDG 16. Onequarter of humanity lives in conflict-affected areas and as of May 2022, a record 100 million people had been forcibly displaced worldwide–more than double the number a decade ago. Citizens also face challenges accessing justice, basic services/legal guarantees and are generally underrepresented due to ineffective institutions. Moreover, structural injustices, inequalities and emerging human rights challenges are putting peaceful and inclusive societies further out of reach. To meet SDG16 by 2030, action is needed to restore trust and to strengthen the capacity of institutions to secure justice for all and facilitate transitions to drive sustainable development.

Globally, about 457,000 people were victims of homicide in 2021— the highest number of victims in the last 20 years. The noticeable spike in killings in 2021 can be partly attributed to the economic repercussions of COVID-related restrictions, as well as an escalation of gang-related and socio-political violence in several countries. The homicide rate was 5.8 per 100,000 population, marginally lower than in 2015 (at 5.9 per 100,000). Men and boys represent about 80% of victims and 90% of suspects.

In 2022, the United Nations recorded 16,988 killings of civilians in armed conflicts: a 53% increase compared to 2021, and the first increase since the adoption of the 2030 Agenda. Four out of ten deaths occurred in Ukraine. One in five was a woman. The proportion of deaths by heavy weapons and explosive munitions increased significantly, from 13% in 2021 to 39% in 2022, in contrast to the steady decline over the previous five years.

Based on survey data from 114 countries, on average, approximately 69% of the population report feeling safe or very safe walking alone around the area in which they live after dark, a figure that has remained stable over the period 2016-2021. Women continue to feel significantly less safe than men.

In 75 countries (mostly low- and middle-income) with available data from 2014 to 2022, 8 in 10 children aged 1-14 years were subjected to some form of psychological aggression and/or physical punishment at home in the previous month. In 70 of these countries, at least half of children experience violent discipline on a regular basis.

In 2020, the number of trafficking victims detected worldwide fell for the first time in 20 years, as COVID-19 preventive measures changed the dynamics of exploitation while compromising anti-trafficking responses. As more victims are likely to remain undetected, increasing efforts are needed to tailor responses to the real prevalence of the crime.

For the period 2014-2021, only 55 countries (mostly low- and middleincome) have internationally comparable data on sexual violence in childhood against girls and only 12 have produced such data for boys. Across regions with representative estimates, the prevalence of sexual violence in childhood (by age 18) among young women aged 18–29 years ranges from 1% in Central and Southern Asia to 7% in Oceania (excluding Australia and New Zealand).

In 2021, the global prison population was 11.2 million, remaining relatively stable between 2015 and 2021, except for a temporary decline between 2019 and 2020. Some 3.4 million of all prisoners are unsentenced detainees and their share among all prisoners has remained at around 30% between 2015 and 2021 and far from the target of equal access to justice for all.

While tracing is a key measure in the process of investigating and disclosing the origins of illicit firearms, its systematic implementation remains a global challenge. On average, Member States with available data successfully traced one-third of seized weapons that are potentially traceable between 2016 and 2021.

Globally, approximately 1 in 7 (15%) businesses face requests for bribe payments by public officials, based on establishment-level data from 154 countries surveyed during 2006-2023.

Multiple crises undermine budget credibility across all regions. The average budget deviations compared to the approved budget decreased from 5- 10% in 2015 to the target of less than 5% in 2019. However, budget credibility deteriorated and reached a deviation of almost 10% for some regions in 2020 – 2021.

In every region of the world except Europe, people under the age of 45 are significantly underrepresented in parliament relative to their share of the national populations.

By providing all children with proof of legal identity from day one, their rights can be protected and universal access to justice and social services can be enabled. In 2022 the births of around 1 in 4 children under age 5 worldwide have never been officially recorded. Only half of the children under five years of age in sub-Saharan Africa have had their births registered.

Access to information (ATI) laws provide legal guarantees of the right to information and were adopted by 136 countries in 2022, up from 105 in 2015.

Progress towards achieving SDG17 has been mixed. On the one hand, there have been some advances in areas such as development aid, remittances flows, and access to technology. However, funding for development remains a major challenge, particularly in lowincome countries. Additionally, geopolitical tensions and the rise of nationalism in some parts of the world have made it more difficult to achieve international cooperation and coordination. Many developing countries are battling record inflation, rising interest rates and looming debt burdens, competing priorities, and limited fiscal space. A major surge in concerted action is needed to ensure developing countries have access to the financing and technologies needed to accelerate SDG implementation.

Based on 2021 data from approximately 130 economies, government revenue accounted for approximately 33% of GDP on average. In addition, the average overall tax burden or revenue in the form of taxes was 26% of GDP among advanced economies and 17% of GDP amongst emerging market and developing economies. The proportion of government expenditure funded by taxes has been stable within each region and worldwide has tended to converge. The overall average was about 66% among advanced economies and 60% among emerging market and developing economies in 2019, but sharply declined to about 52% in 2020 before rebounding to about 58% in 2021 for both groups of economies.

Net ODA flows amounted to $206 billion (current price in 2022, an increase of 15.3% in real terms compared to 2021). This is the highest growth rate in record, mainly due to domestic spending on refugees and aid for Ukraine. However, total ODA as a percentage of GNI continues to remain below the 0.7% target, reaching 0.36% in 2022 compared to 0.31% in 2021. Moreover, net bilateral ODA flows to countries in Africa totalled $34 billion in 2022, representing a drop of 7.4% in real terms compared to 2021.

The COVID-19 pandemic reshaped development spending, driving significant increases in financial resources mobilized for developing countries from multiple sources. Official sustainable development grants passed the $100 billion mark in 2020 and reached $118 billion in 2021. Official concessional loans amounted to $55 billion and official non-concessional loans to $107 billion in 2021, increases of 37% and 51%, respectively compared with 2019. But this is a long way from what is needed to enable developing countries to invest in the transitions needed to achieve the goals, estimated at some USD 3.9 trillion between now and 2030.

Debt levels of advanced and low- and middle-income countries reached record highs during the pandemic, increasing the likelihood of adverse consequences on economic growth. Total external debt of low- and middleincome countries increased by 5.6% in 2021 to $9 trillion, driven primarily by an increase in short-term debt. As of November 2022, 37 out of 69 of the world’s poorest countries were either at high risk or already in debt distress, while one in four middle-income countries, which host the majority of the extreme poor, were at high risk of fiscal crisis.

In 2022, an estimated 66% of the world’s population (5.3 billion) used the Internet, compared with 41% (3 billion) in 2015. Globally, 259 million more men than women used the Internet in 2022. There has been slower growth in the number of Internet users compared to the height of the pandemic, meaning that without increased investment in infrastructure and digital skills, the aim of connecting everyone by 2030 will remain elusive.

Fixed-broadband subscriptions continue to grow steadily, at an average annual growth rate of 6.7% over the last 10 years, reaching 18 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants in 2022 globally, up from 11 subscriptions in 2015. While fixed connections are common among households in upper-middleincome and high-income countries, they are nearly non-existent in low-income countries due to high prices and a lack of infrastructure.

The total trade of tracked Environmentally Sound Technologies (ESTs) in 2020 was $2,364 billion, an increase of 5% since 2015.

The worldwide weighted tariff average was about 2% in 2020- unchanged since 2017, however, a decline from 2.6% in 2015. The latest figures from 2020 indicate that agriculture and clothing products continue to face the highest tariff rates at about 6%, followed by textiles at 4% and industrial products at 1.4%. The special tariff treatment that developed countries offer to developing countries, SIDs, and LDCs remains unchanged.

In 2021, the share of LDCs’ exports in global merchandise trade amounted to 1.05% and has remained almost constant for the last three years. The target of doubling the share of LDCs’ exports by 2020, from its value of 1.03% in 2011, has therefore not been met. The share of all developing countries’ exports in global merchandise trade reached 44.4% in 2021, a share 3.1 percentage points larger than in 2016. It has increased almost continuously over the last five years.

In 2022, 147 countries and territories reported having national statistical legislation compliant with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics. In 2022, 156 countries and territories reported implementing a national statistical plan with 100 of the plans fully funded, compared to 81 countries implementing a national statistical plan with 17 fully funded in 2016. However, due to long-lasting impacts of the pandemic and limited human and financial capacity in strategic planning, many national statistical offices are implementing expired strategic plans for their statistical activities, which may not fully cover their evolving development objectives and emerging demands for data.

International funding for data and statistics amounted to $542 million in 2020, a decrease of over $100 million and $155 million from funding levels in 2019 and 2018, respectively. This rate is also a decline of 16% since 2015. While this decrease could be partially attributed to pandemic-induced funding and policy shifts, it could reflect the long-standing challenges in mainstreaming data activities, the limited pool of donors, and the low strategic priority of statistics.